- Make sure the water bath is free of contamination.
- Cut the frozen sample and put it in a water bath
- Put it on a slide! Then into the oven
- Soften it
- The… saw?
Apparently, formalin preserves stuff for a loooooong time. But since the hospital doesn’t have enough storage space, they can only keep their specimens for a month.
- Xylene is used to get rid of the leftover paraffin. You have to always wear gloves when around it because otherwise, iT wILL bUrN yOuR sKiN aNd MeLt iT
- The hydration process is to absorb the staining better.
- I asked the lab technologist how when the staining process occurs, the entire slide isn’t completely stained? The response I got was this: Based on the chemical composition and the pH of the specimen, only certain parts will be stained by the staining process.
- There’s another type of cover slip used for slides other than glass, and it’s plastic. While glass cover slips take a long time to dry, and they are more likely to shatter, plastic cover slips dry faster and don’t break as easily because, well, they’re plastic.
- Blasts (immature WBC's)
Now in this part of the lab, the technologists do a lot of stuff with white blood cells. They can diagnose leukemia and lymphoma. They use blood and bone marrow specimens and put them in self suspension, and test them with specific antibodies. These antibodies, when put together, are dubbed cocktails (why? Don’t ask me!)
To prepare the samples for testing…
- Incubate the sample
- Break the red blood cells, because otherwise they would interfere with the white blood cells
- Give it a good ole cocktail!
- Wash off the excess antibody (you can use a mesh to do this)
This histogram can determine whether or not somebody has leukemia/lymphoma. How? Well, the following fun fact explains this.
Fun Fact about the Antibodies: A person always has to have more T Cells than B cells. If they have more B cells than T cells, than they may have B cell lymphoma (that’s when the B cells malfunction). The Kappa and Lambda light change immunoglobins must react to the B cells in order to have lymphoma.
- Spinal Fluid
Steps to test for strep:
- Put a swab in the reagent to mix
- Put test strips into the reagent
C Difficile Test:
The other thing done in microbiology is analyzing bacterial cultures. The Hood is a protected bench (station) and it sets up the bacterial cultures, and a cool machine tracks the growth of the cultures. These cultures also have to be incubated with 5% carbon dioxide.
There’s different benches (stations) that analyze these cultures:
- Swabs, fluid, or pieces of tissue from patient wounds are sent here. The amount of bacteria analyzed will determine what drugs should be used on the patient.
- Blood and stool
- Here, two different types of infections in the blood and stool are analyzed: aerobic and anaerobic. Anaerobic infections are treated differently, and are more difficult to treat.
- There’s a lot of bacterial growth in stool but the most important thing they have to test for is salmonella.
- A susceptibility test (how well drugs will work on the patient) has to be done with this type of culture.
- This is what the susceptibility test tray look like. Each hole has different drugs in it.
Anyway, this is self explanatory, the lab technologists study different types of fungi and bacteria.
Here’s some pictures of what yeast, AFB, and mould look like under a microscope.
That’s all I have to say for now. Toodles!